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© Mr Peter Frederick Rushby LMPA

IoE Number: 379382
Location: THE EXCHANGE, ALL SAINTS LANE (south west side)
  BRISTOL, BRISTOL, BRISTOL
Photographer: Mr Peter Frederick Rushby LMPA
Date Photographed: 05 September 1999
Date listed: 08 January 1959
Date of last amendment: 08 January 1959
Grade I

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BRISTOLST5873SECORN STREET, Centre901-1/11/578(South East side)

BRISTOL ST5873SE CORN STREET, Centre 901-1/11/578 (South East side) 08/01/59 The Exchange GV I Exchange, now offices and market. 1741-43. By John Wood the Elder. Carving by Thomas Paty. The courtyard raised and roofed 1872 by EM Barry, current roof 1949. MATERIALS: limestone ashlar, lateral stacks, hipped slate and leaded roof, with C20 glazed roof to the market. PLAN: single-depth rooms to 4 sides of a courtyard in a manner typical of Continental exchanges from the medieval period. Palladian style. EXTERIOR: the principal elevation is symmetrical with a pedimented 3-window centre set forward, a rusticated ground floor to a plat band, pedestal course to 3/4 Corinthian columns to the centre and pilasters to the sides, to an enriched entablature and modillion cornice, with balustrade and dies and a parapet with good foliate urns to the centre and sides of the parapet. A semicircular-arched doorway has rusticated reveals and heavy arched double doors with studs and cast-iron lion-head knockers. Ground-floor windows have incised voussoirs, first-floor windows have Corinthian pilaster jambs with entablature and pediments, alternate triangular and segmental, with a central Venetian window, and square second-floor windows with eared architraves and central clock face of 1822; 6/6-pane and second-floor 3/3-pane sashes with thick bars. Below the frieze is a band of well-detailed swag and festoon to human and animal heads symbolising trade, and a Royal Coat of Arms in the tympanum. The returns have 15-window ranges, the 10 windows to the rear enclosing the 2-storey courtyard, with Gibbs surrounds to the ground-floor openings. 3-storey front ends have outer window sections set back, central first-floor pedimented windows, cornices to the rest, with a good doorway to the front with oak leaf surround, long consoles to a cornice, to double 6-panel doors and plate-glass overlights; the rear courtyard has similar windows with first-floor pediments to rear and fourth from the front; 6 doorways, with a semicircular arch in the rusticated section to the back. The rear elevation is symmetrical with a pedimented 3-window centre and both ends set forward with leaded cyma domes, semicircular ground-floor arches, with niches flanking the central entrance, first-floor windows with aprons and alternate triangular and segmental pediments, and plate-glass sashes. 2 basement windows have 6/9-pane sashes beneath grilles. The sides of the formerly open courtyard have aisles each side with 5x5 bays on Corinthian columns to an entablature, with mid C19 caryatids above between semicircular arches with paterae in the soffits, head keys and the entablature above broken forward; central pediments to the front and back have City Arms. Pilasters to the sides of the courtyard to a frieze with festoon and heads, niches between, and doorways to the middle of each side with Corinthian pilasters to semicircular-arched doorways with tympana with painted symbols of Asia, Africa and America, and Bristol trade. A glazed roof of 1949 added at the height of the entablature. Ashlar stacks to the sides and ridges, the latter with pediment mouldings and cartouches to the inner sides. Good cast-lead rainwater hoppers with cartouches. INTERIOR: entrance lobby with 3x3 bays, Corinthian columns and pilasters to coffered beams with paterae, side and end Venetian doorways on Corinthian pilasters, that to the end with double half-glazed doors and coffered arch with head key; the side doorways have architraves set within them with bead and reel architraves, steps up to double 6-panel doors, and wrought-iron railings. To the right is an open-well stair with uncut string, column-on-vase balusters and column newels, moulded ramped rails; a matching stair to the left, and open-well stairs to the rear each side. The former tavern to the front right has wainscotting, panelled shutters and doors, cornices, and fire surrounds with fluted jambs, coved corbels and mantels. Segmental-arched basement vaults. SUBSIDIARY FEATURES: attached wall lanterns with wrought-iron brackets and flared glass lamps, 2 to the right and 1 to the left return. Considered with King's Weston (qv) as the finest C18 building in Bristol, and referring closely to Palladio's published work. It was designed to have a court housing 600 people, 2 taverns in the front rooms, offices to the sides and market accommodation at the back. Wood proposed a roof but was turned down; EM Barry added the second floor to the courtyard with the caryatids, from which a cast-iron glazed roof sprang, in 1870-72; current roof dates from 1949. (Gomme A, Jenner M and Little B: Bristol, An Architectural History: Bristol: 1979-: 143; Ison W: The Georgian Buildings of Bristol: Bath: 1952-: 95; The Buildings of England: Pevsner N: North Somerset and Bristol: London: 1958-: 415).

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